Before online marketing channels emerged, the cost to market products or services was often prohibitively expensive, and traditionally difficult to measure. Think of national television ad campaigns, which are measured through consumer focus groups to determine levels of brand awareness. These methods are also not well-suited to controlled experimentation. Today, anyone with an online business (as well as most offline businesses) can participate in online marketing by creating a website and building customer acquisition campaigns at little to no cost. Those marketing products and services also have the ability to experiment with optimization to fine-tune their campaigns’ efficiency and ROI.

SEO – Another popular method of promoting affiliate products but also the most difficult is Search Engine Optimization. SEO is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the “natural” or un-paid (“organic” or “algorithmic”) search results. SEO doesn’t bring results instantly but it can be extremely rewarding in the long run.
Take some time once per quarter or so to see how your affiliates are converting, who is at the top of the list, and make sure you’re offering the right commission to keep them sending traffic your way. Additionally, it’s fine to tweak your commission level for someone you feel is a huge influencer in your niche. You don’t want to announce it publicly, of course, but you can always provide a bit more incentive if you have someone interested who could send significant traffic your way.
Alex Genadinik has taught over 100,000 students online, is a 3 time best selling Amazon author and host of a popular business channel on YouTube. Through this course, he wants to teach you strategies for generating residual passive income by setting up your home business. He will also teach you how to find profitable niches and products on Amazon, Clickbank and other platforms.

This course will provide you with a detailed education about affiliate marketing. Especially since it’s created by master affiliate marketer, KC Tan, who reveals all his secrets in the 3-hour on-demand video. This training program was enrolled in by 19,444 students, who left some inviting testimonials. This course offers you a great opportunity to learn the Clickbank affiliate system.

No matter how good your marketing skills are, you’ll make less money on a bad product than you will on a valuable one. Take the time to study the demand for a product before promoting it. Make sure to research the seller with care before teaming up. Your time is worth a lot, and you want to be sure you’re spending it on a product that is profitable and a seller you can believe in.


I would personally agree with linkshare.com as a great affiliate marketing platform to join as a publisher. Here’s why. Back in 2005 when I knew nothing about affiliate marketing and was using blogger.com as a free blogging platform without any experience whatsoever and joining Walmart.com as my first official affiliate program, I was able to insert Walmart affiliate in its in my blogger blog and earn a $72 commission. I was onto affiliate marketing for life from there.
Some commentators originally suggested that affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself. For instance, if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website, an affiliate link leading to a merchant's internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. If a website contains information pertaining to sports, an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports. The goal, in this case, is to publish quality information on the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites.

At Blue Corona, we try and let our clients speak for us. Take a look at our internet marketing reviews from current and former clients to hear straight from them why we are the best internet marketing company for your needs. The main reason you should choose us as your digital marketing service provider is that everything we do comes from the perspective of a business owner, and we treat your business like our own. What does that mean?
“I recently started working with International Open Academy, and the experience has been amazing. I run a vocational therapy business, and by offering job training directly on my website, I’ve seen traffic double in just a few weeks. Offering online courses gives my site a more robust service offering, and I’ve already had positive feedback from customers”
Search Engine Marketing includes Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Search Engine Marketing (SEM). SEO is the process of tuning your business website so that it ranks higher in the search listings when potential customers enter search terms that match your product offerings. SEO is free. SEM is paid search marketing — for a (typically) pay-per-click fee, search engines such as Google will display your ad when a user enters a search using one of your keywords. SEM statistics can provide excellent feedback on the effectiveness of your ad, such as the click-through rate (the number of times your ad has been clicked versus the number of times the page containing the ad has been viewed).
Affiliates work to introduce their visitors to the merchant’s brand. They might write a post about a new product or promotion on the merchant’s site, feature banner ads on their site that drive people to the merchant’s site, or offer visitors a special coupon code. If people come from that affiliate’s site and make a purchase, that affiliate gets paid.
Now that you’ve got the basics down, we’ll dig into the strategies and tactics that will help you accelerate your affiliate marketing success. We’ll revisit some of the crucial basics, go over the must-dos of affiliate marketing, explore different promotion types, dig into some advanced affiliate marketing strategies, and uncover ways to stay on track when the going gets tough.
Nate Johnson is one of the co-founders of Fly Plugins, creators of the first and most widely-implemented learning management system for WordPress, WP Courseware. Since 2012, he has helped thousands of entrepreneurs, corporate training departments, and higher education institutions develop and deploy online training courses from their WordPress websites.
If you are an affiliate looking to monetize your online presence with affiliate marketing, this section of the course will help you with affiliate program suggestions, which include Amazon affiliate program, eBay affiliate program, etc. For each program, you will see highlights regarding the perks they provide (such as cookie life, commission percent, etc.).
CPA marketing programs pay affiliates when a specific action is taken by the referral or lead. Common actions include clicks, impressions, form submits, sign-ups, registrations, or opt-ins. Since Cost-Per-Action models don’t necessarily involve a direct sale (and involve more risk taking) the payout percentages are far smaller than they are in Cost-Per-Sale.

#2: Another great program is Jon Dykstra's Niche Tycoon. This focuses on paid traffic and outsourcing content to make money with Google Adsense (and similar programs). It requires a bit more of a budget, and also has less of a support community than Wealthy Affiliate, so it's best for people with a bit of online marketing experience and some money to get their business going.
#1. Wealthy Affiliate - Wealthy Affiliate is my top choice for anyone interested in learning how to create an online business. The training is the best out there and websites and hosting are all included in the program. They also have a free option to join without a credit card so that you can see what is available in the program before you purchase.

Content marketing is more than just blogging. When executed correctly, content including articles, guides (like this one), webinars, and videos can be powerful growth drivers for your business. Focus on building trust and producing amazing quality. And most of all, make sure that you’re capturing the right metrics. Create content to generate ROI. Measure the right results. This chapter will teach you how.
Companies often use email marketing to re-engage past customers, but a “Where’d You Go? Want To Buy This?” message can come across as aggressive, and you want to be careful with your wording to cultivate a long-term email subscriber. This is why JetBlue’s one year re-engagement email works so well -- it uses humor to convey a sense of friendliness and fun, while simultaneously reminding an old email subscriber they might want to check out some of JetBlue’s new flight deals.
Affiliate Partners Ltd. From the first day i started interacting with Daniel and later on with Robin, it has always been transparent and down to bussiness. Quick response and always ready to assist with every question, even if i sometimes felt like its a stupid question they answered quick and to the best of their knowlegde. Great to be assosialted with Affiliate Partners Ltd. I'm looking forward to be working alongside my Affiliate Partners.
Barkbox had been partnering with animal shelters across the U.S. and Canada to sell their subscription boxes to new puppy parents, with commissions helping to fund these rescue organizations. The program was a hit, but managing communication and logistics for thousands of independent, volunteer-run organizations -- not to mention writing each one a check every quarter -- was a time-consuming proposition.
That being said, LinkConnector’s platform looks and feels outdated and is rather clumsily designed. Their dashboard also makes it difficult to find “hot” products or compare conversion rates, leaving affiliates somewhat in the dark about which products to choose. Ironically, despite their low-quality website, they offer some of the best customer service in the affiliate space.
The first thing to be clear on is whether you are actually looking for an affiliate marketing course or are you looking to join an affiliate marketing program or a combination of the two? A course is going to be something along the lines of a step by step guide telling you what you need to do. This will give you the information on how to do affiliate marketing, but you will still have to away and find a person, business or company who run affiliate programs, and speak to them about becoming an affiliate so you can put what you’ve learnt into practice.

We have “Carefully” scoured through ALOT of the “Affiliate Networks” in hopes of adding the right content for our visitors. The trueth is; whether it be the least popular networks OR the top notch programs, they each have various conditions which will screw you from generating revenue. Adding their links and promoting their advertisers is nothing more than a waste of YOUR time and YOUR webspace if you don’t get paid to have them there sooo, don’t get in a hurry to join any affiliate programs until you read through their “Terms & Conditions” thoroughly and completely!
Affiliate marketing is one of the earliest forms of performance-based online marketing. The 90s ushered in the age of the internet. Organizations and individuals began creating websites and content in droves and – when search engines began cataloging websites and pages, making it easy to find and navigate to this content – marketing changed forever.
No. Once you pass your test, and receive your certificate, you are certified for life. For instance if do great on your exam, and thereby get your SEO Certification, get Web Analytics Certified or a Social Media Marketing Certification, then you have it, and we will not ask you to give it back to us, or remove it from your LinkedIn profile, CV or resume. Once you pass the test, the certification is yours to keep.
The Instructor, Theo McArthur is an entrepreneur, amazon seller, investor as well as expert online marketer. Having been working on this domain since 1995, she now truly enjoys helping others learn life changing techniques and business models. Having created numerous ‘authority’ blogs to promote affiliate products over the years, she is perfectly placed to teach you the tricks involved in kick starting and enhancing your affiliate business. Along with all this, she’s also been selling stuff on Amazon and runs her own e-commerce venture. All in all, this is as much experience as you can ever wish for in a trainer. Hope you are able to make the most of this training program.
Establishment of customer exclusivity: A list of customers and customer's details should be kept on a database for follow up and selected customers can be sent selected offers and promotions of deals related to the customer's previous buyer behaviour. This is effective in digital marketing as it allows organisations to build up loyalty over email.[22]
MaxBounty works exclusively with digital products, usually about giving one’s email or signing up for a newsletter. MaxBounty has CPA, Pay-per-call, and CPL campaigns that you can choose from. MaxBounty is involved in a large number of verticals, including market research, real estate, social games, finance, dating, and diet, but is primarily designed for marketers seeking to acquire new leads.
It’s free to join the SellHealth affiliate program, though you do have to apply and be accepted before you can start promoting their products.  Once you’re accepted, you’ll have access to a number of tools, graphics, banners and more that you can use to promote SellHealth products.  The sales are actually made at company-owned Websites, which look professional and handle all of the selling. Commissions vary, but the base rate is 30% of all sales and upsells, and SellHealth says you can earn up to $350 per sale.
With the ability to rank organically in search engine queries, bloggers excel at increasing a seller’s conversions. The blogger samples the product or service and then writes a comprehensive review that promotes the brand in a compelling way, driving traffic back to the seller’s site. The blogger is awarded for his or her influence spreading the word about the value of the product, helping to improve the seller’s sales.
Customers are often researching online and then buying in stores and also browsing in stores and then searching for other options online. Online customer research into products is particularly popular for higher-priced items as well as consumable goods like groceries and makeup. Consumers are increasingly using the Internet to look up product information, compare prices, and search for deals and promotions.[21]

Affiliate networks play an important role in the relationship between affiliates and merchants. They are the meeting point, which is why most affiliates and merchants will be a member of at least one of them. This chapter focuses on what affiliate networks are and how they work, with the process being explained for both affiliates and merchants. The chapter concludes with five popular affiliate networks in the industry at this moment with most prominent features and benefits highlighted for each of them.
Digital marketing activity is still growing across the world according to the headline global marketing index. A study published in September 2018, found that global outlays on digital marketing tactics are approaching $100 billion.[40] Digital media continues to rapidly grow; while the marketing budgets are expanding, traditional media is declining (World Economics, 2015).[41] Digital media helps brands reach consumers to engage with their product or service in a personalised way. Five areas, which are outlined as current industry practices that are often ineffective are prioritizing clicks, balancing search and display, understanding mobiles, targeting, viewability, brand safety and invalid traffic, and cross-platform measurement (Whiteside, 2016).[42] Why these practices are ineffective and some ways around making these aspects effective are discussed surrounding the following points.
The choices I’ve listed above are the affiliate networks that I’m most familiar with. Most I use today or have used in the past. It’s hardly a complete list of all the good affiliate networks that are out there since there are so many. If you would like to share a network that you really like working with please list it in the comments section at the bottom of this page.
Word of mouth communications and peer-to-peer dialogue often have a greater effect on customers, since they are not sent directly from the company and are therefore not planned. Customers are more likely to trust other customers’ experiences.[22] Examples can be that social media users share food products and meal experiences highlighting certain brands and franchises. This was noted in a study on Instagram, where researchers observed that adolescent Instagram users' posted images of food-related experiences within their social networks, providing free advertising for the products.[26]
We designed a promotion where, for a single day, opt-in affiliates would earn double commission on any purchase. Since the retailer’s commission rate was already attractive at 8 percent, we knew that a 16 percent commission could be the enticement affiliates needed. The move would essentially wipe out much of the retailer’s revenue for that particular day. But if it could generate enough content posts, those placements would continue to generate revenue after the promotion was over.
It’s free to join the SellHealth affiliate program, though you do have to apply and be accepted before you can start promoting their products.  Once you’re accepted, you’ll have access to a number of tools, graphics, banners and more that you can use to promote SellHealth products.  The sales are actually made at company-owned Websites, which look professional and handle all of the selling. Commissions vary, but the base rate is 30% of all sales and upsells, and SellHealth says you can earn up to $350 per sale.
After the product listing for your course is submitted and approved, it is placed in the marketplace and will be live and available for publishers to begin promoting. The rest is really almost entirely handled by the marketplace. They will record visits from your affiliates, track any conversions (sales), provide reporting, and at the end of each month they’ll pay you for your percentage of each sale and pay the affiliate for their share. It’s pretty darn simple actually.
Most businesses require startup fees as well as a cash flow to finance the products being sold. However, affiliate marketing can be done at a low cost, meaning you can get started quickly and without much hassle. There are no affiliate program fees to worry about and no need to create a product. Beginning this line of work is relatively straightforward.
I’ve written about this before, but we also hear from customers who are in a different position. They have a great idea for course content in a viable niche and they’ve purchased WP Courseware, but they’re reluctant to get started with investing time in creating their content because they aren’t sure if they will be able to successfully market their course.
The truth? Today, rising above the noise and achieving any semblance of visibility has become a monumental undertaking. While we might prevail at searching, we fail at being found. How are we supposed to get notice while swimming in a sea of misinformation and disinformation? We've become immersed in this guru gauntlet where one expert after another is attempting to teach us how we can get the proverbial word out about our businesses and achieve visibility to drive more leads and sales, but we all still seem to be lost.
I offer a ton of free resources, tips, guides and tutorials here on my website that can help you get started in affiliate marketing – and help you find success with it. While there are plenty of paid training programs out there, you need to be careful. Some of the people who create these programs make their money by selling the dream and not through doing true affiliate marketing for products or services outside of selling you the dream. That's not to say there are not some good training programs out there - but buyer beware. For now, I'd recommend you start with my free information here on my website – and to sign up for my free weekly newsletter here.
I’m a newbie and just stumbled into this article, which I find hugely informative. So thank you for writing this article. I’m close to finishing building my very first website and don’t have a domain yet, but have a question. Since affiliate program is considered a business, I’m wondering how do we set up a simple LLC one person company to separate our personal stuff from our online business stuff? Is there a simple reliable step-by-step guide we can follow, or does anyone here can advise with your own experiences? Thank you.
One of the most sought after and highly recommended course is this one on Guide to Effective Affiliate Marketing Strategies by Kudus Adu. Not only does he focus on create an affiliate marketing strategy, he focuses on best practices to create money pages, tells you how to build your email marketing list and how to profit from it. He clearly asks people looking for ‘get rich quick strategies’ to stay away from the course. More details here.
14. Avangate Avangate is a player in digital commerce that you may not be familiar with. Avangate, backed by a cloud platform, focuses on online commerce, subscription billing, and global payments for Software, SaaS and Online Services companies. More than 4000 digital businesses in over 180 countries trust Avangate including Absolute Software, Bitdefender, Brocade, FICO, HP Software, Kaspersky Lab, Telestream, Spyrix and CleverControl.
This advanced lecture and lab course is designed to help clinicians restore gait dynamics and functional performance when working with geriatric populations or the immobile, frail or chronic of any age. Participants will gain an appreciation for PRI fundamental principles and the common asymmetrical patterns that can lead to faulty movement, pathomechanics and pain. PRI assessment tests designed specifically for geriatrics and low functioning patients, clients or athletes will be introduced to guide exercise selection, program planning and to monitor progress. Treatment recommendations are designed specifically for geriatric and low functioning populations to help them deliver successful treatment outcomes when traditional PRI positions and activities may not be well tolerated. Respiration and alternating reciprocal movement will be emphasized during program development and lab experiences to help restore ADL function, bed mobility, transfer ability, dynamic balance and gait performance.
You set the commissions, choose the product pricing, decide what creative assets you want to make available, and even choose which affiliates you approve. Around two years ago, we moved from listing our plugins in various affiliate marketplaces to running our own affiliate program. And it’s been very beneficial. It does require a bit of work each month, but we can now ensure that the traffic sent to our site is high-quality and from site publishers who are creating useful and thoughtful content.
There’s a good reason why ClickBank is still a strong contender, however it does tend to focus more on digital products which may be of questionable quality. Yes, the review process is more professional these days, but it’s still primarily focused on selling digital products, especially “how to make money” courses and the like. That being said, there are some genuinely high-quality products on offer, and few affiliate programs are bigger than ClickBank, especially in selling (primarily digital) books.
Quality content is more likely to get shared. By staying away from creating "thin" content and focusing more on content that cites sources, is lengthy and it reaches unique insights, you'll be able to gain Google's trust over time. Remember, this happens as a component of time. Google knows you can't just go out there and create massive amounts of content in a few days. If you try to spin content or duplicate it in any fashion, you'll suffer a Google penalty and your visibility will be stifled.
In terms of sales, 33 percent of participants drove a sale. When we see 10 percent of a client’s affiliate base driving sales on a regular basis, we consider that a healthy, well-managed affiliate program. To see 33 percent of a select group of affiliates driving sales tells us that this promotion works. Further, of the participants that drove sales, 25 percent of them drove their first sale ever within the program.
Display advertising - As the term infers, Online Display Advertisement deals with showcasing promotional messages or ideas to the consumer on the internet. This includes a wide range of advertisements like advertising blogs, networks, interstitial ads, contextual data, ads on the search engines, classified or dynamic advertisement etc. The method can target specific audience tuning in from different types of locals to view a particular advertisement, the variations can be found as the most productive element of this method.
Affiliate marketing is one of the earliest forms of performance-based online marketing. The 90s ushered in the age of the internet. Organizations and individuals began creating websites and content in droves and – when search engines began cataloging websites and pages, making it easy to find and navigate to this content – marketing changed forever.

The network is, again, contested by some as to whether it’s truly a part of the affiliate marketing conglomerate. But for good measure, we’ll discuss it. The network is essentially the middle man used to manage this exchange. The network helps accomplish such tasks as payment processing, tracking technology, reporting solutions, and can serve as a repository of available affiliates.
Brian Dean, an SEO expert and the creator of BackLinko, uses SEO tactics to rank #1 on YouTube for keywords like “on page SEO” and “video SEO”. Initially, Dean admits his YouTube account struggled to get any views. Employing SEO methods like keyword optimization has enabled Dean to rise to #1 on YouTube for search results related to his business. He published his full strategy on Backlinko.
One big difference between SkimLinks and VigLinks, however, is that once you’re approved by the company, you can choose to work with any merchant or program on its platform. SkimLinks has also published a white paper discussing its partnership with Buzzfeed, giving SkimLinks a lot of credibility. SkimLinks also has a higher tier of vetted merchants called “Preferred Partner” and “VIP” that both pay higher commissions than standard merchants.
Established in 1997, FOREX CLUB (the company) is the brand name for a group of companies that provides clients from over 120 countries with platforms and services for trading forex, CFDs and other online trading and educational products. We offer every client effective tools in training, analytics and education, as well as personal support where they want it. FOREX CLUB has over 650 employees worldwide.  In 2011 alone, over 45,000 traders chose to learn forex trading with us.  FOREX CLUB was one of the industry’s first to offer zero spread trading and commission refunds on all unprofitable trades.

When I wrote this post, I was in the middle of running another massive launch, this time for Michael Hyatt. The upside to these launches is that they are fun, they have massive impact, and well…we make a lot of money. The downside is that it’s really hard to stand out. But in this post, I’ll share 10 ways you can go the extra mile and really stand out, serve your audience better, and sell a lot more!
VigLink is an intermediary platform, so it can serve as a backdoor for affiliates who have previously been banned/suspended from working with other affiliate programs like Amazon. And while you can choose specific merchants or offers, VigLink can be set up to work automatically by scanning your published content and dynamically generating affiliate links, making it a great choice for established content producers who are looking for a simpler way to generate revenue via an affiliate program.

Balancing search and display for digital display ads are important; marketers tend to look at the last search and attribute all of the effectiveness to this. This then disregards other marketing efforts, which establish brand value within the consumers mind. ComScore determined through drawing on data online, produced by over one hundred multichannel retailers that digital display marketing poses strengths when compared with or positioned alongside, paid search (Whiteside, 2016).[42] This is why it is advised that when someone clicks on a display ad the company opens a landing page, not its home page. A landing page typically has something to draw the customer in to search beyond this page. Things such as free offers that the consumer can obtain through giving the company contact information so that they can use retargeting communication strategies (Square2Marketing, 2012).[43] Commonly marketers see increased sales among people exposed to a search ad. But the fact of how many people you can reach with a display campaign compared to a search campaign should be considered. Multichannel retailers have an increased reach if the display is considered in synergy with search campaigns. Overall both search and display aspects are valued as display campaigns build awareness for the brand so that more people are likely to click on these digital ads when running a search campaign (Whiteside, 2016).[42]
97 percent of consumers go online to find local services, and 82 percent of smartphone users use a search engine when looking for a local business. How do you connect with them? With local search engine optimization (SEO) from one of the best local SEO companies in the nation. Your customers are searching for your business—let Blue Corona help them find you.
Always disclose your affiliate relationship. Most visitors will probably understand that graphic ads will lead to your getting paid, but if you write a review or use an in-text link as a recommendation, you want your readers to know that may lead to compensation as well. This ensures you retain transparency and trust with your readers, but also, it's required by the FTC's endorsement rules.
Interpersonal relationships have been crucial to the success of Murphy’s program. She frequently consults with top affiliates directly to keep communication open. She’ll also adjust her product mix and merchandising to increase conversion rates to drive mutual profitability and long-term value. CrazyForBargains takes these key steps to stay active in the affiliate community:
However, some of the world's top-earning blogs gross millions of dollars per month on autopilot. It's a great source of passive income and if you know what you're doing, you could earn a substantial living from it. You don't need millions of visitors per month to rake in the cash, but you do need to connect with your audience and have clarity in your voice.

It is important for a firm to reach out to consumers and create a two-way communication model, as digital marketing allows consumers to give back feed back to the firm on a community based site or straight directly to the firm via email.[24] Firms should seek this long term communication relationship by using multiple forms of channels and using promotional strategies related to their target consumer as well as word-of mouth marketing.[24]
In effect, VigLink works as the middleman between a publisher (blogger) and merchants by scanning the publisher’s content and automatically creating links to publishers that are chosen “in real time” based on their payout/conversation rates. This makes VigLink a very hands-off affiliate program for publishers who prefer to focus on content instead of managing their affiliate links.

For instance, you might use Facebook’s Lookalike Audiences to get your message in front of an audience similar to your core demographic. Or, you could pay a social media influencer to share images of your products to her already well-established community. Paid social media can attract new customers to your brand or product, but you’ll want to conduct market research and A/B testing before investing too much in one social media channel.
While the world goes gaga over Digital Marketing, few seem to be discussing affiliate marketing in depth. A true gem, a lot of digital marketing in the future will be reliant on affiliate marketing. While social media marketing helps create buzz, search engine marketing helps drive traffic, affiliate marketers helps converts traffic into leads and sales. As the focus on ROI and analytics grows, more businesses will demand (they have started demanding already) people to showcase the exact value of digital marketing efforts. If there is one decisive way to measure digital marketing, it’s affiliate marketing. Keeping all that in mind, we’ve reviewed and listed 7 Best Affiliate Marketing Courses and Training for 2017.

The trainers Phil Ebiner and Diego Davila are very proficient when it comes to all things digital marketing. Having taught 600,000+ students on a variety of subjects till date, they are more experienced than you can believe. Affiliate marketing is incomplete without in depth knowledge of digital marketing and that is exactly what this course wishes to fulfill in 32.5 hours of intense training. You will learn about platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest in addition to finding more about Email Marketing, Quora, Google Adwords and much more.

Individual sellers and companies offering products or services have to deal with their consumers and ensure they are satisfied with what they have purchased. Thanks to the affiliate marketing structure, you’ll never have to be concerned with customer support or customer satisfaction. The entire job of the affiliate marketer is to link the seller with the consumer. The seller deals with any consumer complaints after you receive your commission from the sale.
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